Phonetic correlates of word and sentence stress
Vincent van Heuven
Title of the course:
Phonetic correlates of word and sentence stress
Intermediate (students are expected to have followed at least a BA course in Phonetics).
It has been estimated that about half of the languages in the world have stress, i.e., a structural property by which one syllable in a word is felt to be stronger than the other(s), or one word is felt to be stronger than other words in a phrase or sentence. We will review classical studies on the phonetic properties of English and Dutch that distinguish stressed units from their unstressed counterparts, with emphasis on experimental design and measurement procedures. Techniques will be demonstrated in class and practiced at home using Praat software (Boersma & Weenink, 1996). The survey will then be supplemented by more recent work on a range of other languages. We will ask ourselves whether the acoustic and/or perceptual importance of stress correlates (such as duration of vowels and consonants, peak and mean intensity, spectral expansion/reduction, spectral slope) is fixed or varies across languages (and if the latter, why this might be so). The course includes special lectures on the interaction between word stress and sentence stress, of stress and tone (in languages with hybrid stress-and-tone word prosody) and on the role of stress in the recognition of words and information processing in spoken sentences/paragraphs.
Provisional schedule & reading list (two instruction hours in either morning of afternoon, five days)
General introduction. Terminology. Survey of classical work on production of stress in English and Dutch. Design of studies. Acoustic analysis of parameters relevant to word stress (segment duration, intensity, spectral slope, spectral expansion).
Read: Van Bergem (1993), Cutler (2005), De Jong et al. (1993), Van Heuven (2017 §1, 2018 §§1-2), Van Heuven & Sluijter (1996), Van Heuven & Turk (2018, appendix), Lehto (1969), Sluijter et al. (1995), Sluijter & Van Heuven (1996).
Acoustic analysis of parameters relevant to sentence stress. Interaction of word stress and sentence stress. Division of work between parameters in languages with hybrid stress-and-tone word prosody.
Read: Beckman & Edwards (1994), Van Heuven (1998, 2018 §4), Remijsen (2002), Remijsen & Van Heuven (2005), Maniwa et al. (2009)
Perception of word and sentence stress. Experimental design. Relative importance of stress cues. Data analysis and presentation of results. Stress deafness.
Read: Fry 1955, 1958, 1965, Van Heuven (2018 §3), Van Heuven & De Jonge (2011), Peperkamp & Dupoux (2002)
Cross-linguistic comparison of stress cues. Languages with fixed stress vs. variable/contrastive stress. Pros and cons of the functional load hypothesis.
Read: Berinstein (1979), Dogil & Williams (1999), Gordon & Roettger (2014), Van Heuven (2018a §4), Lunden et al. (2017), Potisuk et al. (1976), Vogel et al. (2017),
Role of stress in spoken word recognition. Role of sentence stress in the processing of spoken sentences.
Read: Cutler (1986, 2005), Cutler & Van Donselaar (2001), Cutler & Darwin (1981), Van Heuven (1988), Jesse et al. (2017), Nooteboom & Terken (1984).
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